Dialogue - Dutch

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Vocabulary

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eindexamen final examination
afnemen to hold
motivatie motivation
eer honor
belangrijk important
begrijpen to understand
goed u eens te zien good to see you
verschillend different
niveau level
belangstelling interest

Lesson Notes

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Grammar

The Focus of This Lesson is Using the Present Tense to Talk About the Present or Past
Waar heeft u eerder gewerkt?

"Where have you worked before?"

 


 

 

In this lesson, you will learn how to:

1. Use a present tense to talk about the past

2. Change the word order to ask a question

3. Use adjectives

 


 

 

1. How to use the present tense to talk about the past


 

 

The Dutch verb hebben ("to have") is very widely used. The formal first person singular is hebt, although heeft is also widely used (more often, some think). U heeft gewerkt is the Present Perfect of "You have worked." So a present tense is used to talk about something that happened in the past. The Simple Past would be U werkte ("You worked.") As in many other languages there are several ways to refer to the past.

Below you will find some common tenses and conjugations of the verb Hebben.

 

 

Infinitive: Hebben

Present

Simple past

Present Perfect with the verb werken ("to work")

(present + past participle)

English

Ik heb

Ik had

Ik heb gewerkt

I have

Informal: Jij hebt

Jij had

Jij hebt gewerkt

You have

Formal: U heeft (hebt)

U had

U heeft (hebt) gewerkt

You have

Hij/zij heeft

hij/zij had

Hij/zij heeft gewerkt

He/she has

Wij hebben

Wij hadden

Wij hebben gewerkt

We have

Zij hebben

Zij hadden

Zij hebben gewerkt

They have

Informal: Jullie hebben

Jullie hadden

Jullie hebben gewerkt

You have

Formal: U heeft (hebt)

U had

U heeft (hebt) gewerkt

You have

 

For example:

  1. Ik heb al gegeten.
    "I have already eaten."
  2. Zij zijn verleden jaar in Italiẽ geweest.
    "They have been to Italy last year."

 

2. How to change the word order to ask a question

 


 

 

In Dutch, turning a statement into a question is relatively easy. In many cases, just changing the word order is all it takes. Sometimes the verb has to be conjugated differently, but usually not. For a simple statement the sentence is usually made up of a subject, a verb and a direct object, or some other clause (in that order.) For example Jan slaat de hond ("John beats the dog,") becomes Slaat Jan de hond? ("Does John beat the dog?)

This is basically the whole grammatical theory for turning statements into questions. But of course there are also different ways (see below).

For example:

Dutch

English

Statement

Question

Statement

Question

Ik ben gelukkig.

Ben ik gelukkig?

I am happy

Am I happy?

We gaan naar het strand.

Gaan we naar het strand?

We are going to the beach.

Are we going to the beach?

Het weer is mooi.

Is het mooi weer?

The weather is nice.

Is it nice weather?

Het weer is mooi.

Hoe is het weer?

The weather is nice.

How is the weather?

 

 

3. How to use adjectives


 

 

Adjectives are always placed before the noun to which they refer. Adjectives in Dutch are conjugated. Both the article before it and the gender of the noun have their influence on the conjugation of the adjective. Please see the table below for some examples that should make things clear.

Dutch

English

Description

Een grote beer.

A big bear.

Indefinite article, masculine noun

De grote beer.

The big bear

Definite article, masculine noun

Een groot huis.

A big house.

Indefinite article, neuter noun

Het grote huis.

The big house.

Definite article, neuter noun

Please note

Het rode, bakstenen huis.

A red brick house.

A house that is made of bricks and is red.

Het rood bakstenen huis.

The red-brick house.

A house made of red bricks.

 

 

Examples from the dialogue:

  1. En wilt u nu op een hoger niveau werken?
    "And you want to work at a higher level?"
  2. Ja dat is mijn belangrijkste motivatie.
    "Yes that's my main motivation."

 

Sample Sentences


  1. Ik heb de laatste twee jaren helemaal geen vakantie gehad.
    "I haven't had any holidays in the last two years."
  2. Ik ga vanavond naar het feest. Ga jij ook?
    "I'm going to the party tonight. Are you going as well?"
  3. Op goede scholen zijn er altijd moeilijke examens.
    "Good schools always have difficult examinations."

Cultural Insights

Job Interviews in the Netherlands

As in any other country, in the Netherlands job interviews are nerve-racking and unpleasant situations, for the person being interviewed at least. Employers want the best and therefore put a lot of pressure on the person being interviewed. The potential future employee obviously wants the job, if not he/she wouldn't be sitting there! Still, in comparison to other countries, Holland is fairly relaxed regarding the interview process. In interviews in other countries they may suddenly asked interviewees to play a role, give a demonstration or some other unexpected thing, but this sort of interview is fairly rare in Holland.

Useful expression:

  1. En? Wat vond u zelf van dit gesprek?
    "And? What did you think about this conversation yourself?"

Lesson Transcript

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Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 1 - A Dutch Job Interview, Part 1
INTRODUCTION
Kellie: Hi everyone, and welcome back to DutchPod101.com. This is Intermediate Season 1 Lesson 1 - A Dutch Job Interview, Part 1. Kellie Here.
Jacob: Hallo, I'm Jacob.
Kellie: In this lesson, you’ll learn how to use the present tense to talk about the present or the past, and the use of adjectives. The conversation takes place at a Senior High School in the Netherlands..
Jacob: It's between Mister Jansen and Lukas.
Kellie: The speakers have a professional relationship, so they will use formal Dutch. Okay, let's listen to the conversation.
DIALOGUE
Meneer Jansen: Dat is een eer u te ontmoeten. Mijn naam is Jansen. Ik had al over u gehoord.
Lukas: Ja meneer mijn naam is Lukas. Goed u eens te ontmoeten.
Meneer Jansen: Ik begrijp dat u voor ons wilt komen werken.
Lukas: Inderdaad, ik heb belangstelling voor de baan als leraar Engels.
Meneer Jansen: Waar heeft u eerder gewerkt?
Lukas: Op een paar verschillende scholen, in de onderbouw.
Meneer Jansen: En wilt u nu op een hoger niveau werken?
Lukas: Ja dat is mijn belangrijkste motivatie.
Meneer Jansen: U zult ook eindexamens moeten afnemen. Een hele verantwoordelijkheid.
Kellie: Listen to the conversation with the English translation
Mister Jansen: It’s an honor to meet you. My name is Jansen. I heard about you.
Lukas: Yes sir, my name is Lukas. It’s good to see you finally.
Mister Jansen: I understand that you want to come and work for us.
Lukas: Indeed, I'm interested in the job as an English teacher.
Mister Jansen: Where have you worked before?
Lukas: At several different Junior High Schools.
Mister Jansen: And you want to work at a higher level?
Lukas: Yes, that's my main motivation.
Mister Jansen: You will have to hold final examinations as well. Quite a responsibility.
POST CONVERSATION BANTER
Kellie: In this conversation, Lukas was applying for a job.
Jacob: Like anywhere in the world, job interviews in the Netherlands can be very nerve wracking.
Kellie: Right! I think everyone get nervous at job interviews. What are job interviews like in the Netherlands?
Jacob: Although they are nerve wracking and full of tension, I think they’re generally more relaxed than most countries.
Kellie: How so?
Jacob: Have you ever had an interview where you’ve been asked to role play or give a demonstration?
Kellie: Yes, I have! That’s the worst!
Jacob: That rarely happens in the Netherlands.
Kellie: I think that sort of thing should be banned.
Jacob: Sounds like you’ve had a bad experience! Employers in the Netherlands don’t usually ask for those kind of things in interviews, but of course they still want to hire the best person they can.
Kellie: So the regular pressure that you feel in a job interview will still be there.
Jacob: Right. But, the interviewee must want the job, so it’s something they have to deal with!
Kellie: Okay, now onto the vocab.
VOCAB LIST
Kellie: Let’s take a look at the vocabulary from this lesson. The first word is..
Jacob: eer [natural native speed]
Kellie: honor
Jacob: eer[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Jacob: eer [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have..
Jacob: goed u eens te zien [natural native speed]
Kellie: good to see you
Jacob: goed u eens te zien[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Jacob: goed u eens te zien [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have..
Jacob: begrijpen [natural native speed]
Kellie: to understand
Jacob: begrijpen[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Jacob: begrijpen [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have..
Jacob: belangstelling [natural native speed]
Kellie: interest
Jacob: belangstelling[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Jacob: belangstelling [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have..
Jacob: verschillend [natural native speed]
Kellie: different
Jacob: verschillend[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Jacob: verschillend [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have..
Jacob: belangrijk [natural native speed]
Kellie: important
Jacob: belangrijk[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Jacob: belangrijk [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have..
Jacob: niveau [natural native speed]
Kellie: level
Jacob: niveau[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Jacob: niveau [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have..
Jacob: motivatie [natural native speed]
Kellie: motivation
Jacob: motivatie[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Jacob: motivatie [natural native speed]
Kellie: Next we have..
Jacob: afnemen [natural native speed]
Kellie: to hold
Jacob: afnemen[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Jacob: afnemen [natural native speed]
Kellie: And last..
Jacob: eindexamen [natural native speed]
Kellie: final examination
Jacob: eindexamen[slowly - broken down by syllable]
Jacob: eindexamen [natural native speed]
KEY VOCAB AND PHRASES
Kellie: Let's take a closer look at the usage of some of the words and phrases from this lesson. The first word is..
Jacob: Ik heb belangstelling voor...
Kellie: meaning "I'm interested in..."
Kellie: What can you tell us about this?
Jacob: It literally means “I have an interest in…”.
Kellie: Can you break down the phrase for us?
Jacob: The dictionary form of “to have” is hebben, but this uses ik heb, the first person singular form. Belangstelling is a noun meaning “interested”
Kellie: How do we use this?
Jacob: You can use it to show what you have an interest in.
Kellie: Can you give us an example using this word?
Jacob: Sure. For example, you can say.. Hij informeerde belangstellend hoe het ging.
Kellie: ..which means "He inquired sympathetically how things were." Okay, what's the next word?
Jacob: een paar verschillende
Kellie: meaning "several different"
Kellie: Can you break this down for us?
Jacob: paar means “pair”, but can also be used to say “couple” or “few”. Verschillend means different, so it literally means “a few different”.
Kellie: How is this phrase used?
Jacob: It’s usually used to show that there are more possibilities or different things.
Kellie: Is it okay to use this in both formal and informal language?
Jacob: In more formal language you should use enkele verschillende.
Kellie: Can you give us an example sentence?
Jacob: Of course. For example, you can say.. Het betreft hier een paar verschillende onderwerpen.
Kellie: .. which means "This concerns several different subjects." Okay, what's the next word?
Jacob: hoger niveau
Kellie: meaning "higher level"
Kellie: So what can you tell us about this one?
Jacob: Like in many other languages, niveau can refer to many different types of levels.
Kellie: Right, in English, for example, “level” can refer to physical levels, like water levels, or concepts, like educational levels.
Jacob: It’s the same in Dutch. We can use laag niveau to mean “low level”.
Kellie: Can you use it in a sample sentence for us?
Jacob: Sure. For example, you can say.. De universiteiten zijn in dit land altijd van een hoger niveau.
Kellie: .. which means "The universities in this country are always on a higher level."
Kellie: Okay, now onto the lesson focus.

Lesson focus

Kellie: In this lesson, you'll learn how to use the present tense to talk about the present or the past, and the use of adjectives. Jacob, can you introduce this topic for us?
Jacob: Sure. In Dutch, we use the verb hebben, meaning “to have” a lot.
Kellie: This was mentioned in the key vocabulary section, right?
Jacob: Yes, good memory! U heeft gewerkt is the present perfect form of “You have worked”.
Kellie: So this is something that happened in the past.
Jacob: If we wanted to use the simple past, it would just be U werkte meaning, “You worked”.
Kellie: In Dutch, like in many other languages, there are different ways to refer to the past.
Jacob: Hebben has many different conjugations, depending on the tense and also who the subject is.
Kellie: So, “I have…” and “you have…” will be different conjugations?
Jacob: That’s right. There is a table with all of the different conjugations in the lesson notes.
Kellie: So make sure to check it out!
Jacob: In Dutch, there is an easy way to make a question.
Kellie: What’s that?
Jacob: You can turn a statement into a question by changing the word order. Sometimes you need to change the verb slightly, but usually not.
Kellie: Can you give us an example?
Jacob: My pleasure! For example you could say We gaan naar het strand.
Kellie: “We are going to the beach.” How does that sound when it’s the question “Are we going to the beach?”
Jacob: Gaan we naar het strand?
Kellie: All that changed was the order of the first two words.
Jacob: That’s right. Finally for this lesson, let’s look at adjectives in Dutch.
Kellie: Adjectives are words that we use to describe things. How do we use them in Dutch?
Jacob: They go before the noun they’re describing and are conjugated according to the gender. The article before the adjective, and the gender of the noun after it, influence the conjugation.
Kellie: What’s an example of this?
Jacob: Hmm...let’s use the adjective for “big”. When used with a masculine noun, such as “bear”, it is grote. “A big bear” is Een grote beer.
Kellie: And with a noun that isn’t masculine?
Jacob: With a neuter noun, it is groot. “A big house” is Een groot huis.
Kellie: Thanks for the explanation!

Outro

Kellie: Okay, that’s all for this lesson. Thank you for listening, everyone, and we’ll see you next time! Bye!
Jacob: Tot ziens!